Team Boualem Sendid

Fungal Associated Invasive and Inflammatory Diseases








Pr. Boualem Sendid

phone: (+33) 320 623 415

fax: (+33) 320 623 416


Inserm U995 – University Lille 2 – School of Medicine
Pôle Recherche – 4th floor center
Place Verdun – F-59045 Lille cedex – FRANCE



Daniel Poulain (PU-PH, surn. Univ.)


Boualem Sendid (PU-PH) 


Samir Jawhara (IR, CHR Lille)

Julien Poissy (MCU-PH)

Séverine Loridant (PH, CHR Lille)

Marjorie Cornu (AHU, Lille2)

Anne-Marie Clabaut (Inserm)


Nadine François (TR CHRU)


Bernadette Leu (TR Univ.), Administrator


Annick Masset (TR Inserm)



Team Picture copy

The team

Created in 1998 under the leadership of Daniel Poulain, the team was formed by the individualization of the research group candidiasis Unit Inserm U42, with the assistance of two researchers Inserm, Pierre-André Trinel and Thierry Jouault, joined by a hospital doctor, Boualem Sendid. The team successively EA2684, INSERM-E9915, U799 and U0360 is the only entity of Inserm in medical mycology. It combines an approach in basic research in glycobiology and immunology, to the medical reality, thanks to its location within the University Hospital of Lille.
In 2010, the team decided to join four others groups to form the Unit 995 recognized by Inserm on the theme of inflammation, the regulatory mechanisms and interactions with nutrition and Candida infections. The aim of this association was to increase the research potential and open the projects. Thus, in addition to the mechanisms of pathogenesis of fungal infections, the team is interested more generally in the relationship between glycans (especially fungal glycans), receptors of the innate immunity, the adaptive response and the inflammation in the particular context of chronic inflammation disease. The research goal is supported by the fact that yeast can play a role in intestinal homeostasis and the disturbances observed in inflammatory processes encountered in inflammatory bowel disease.
Since 2011, the team was organized around two main components, a fundamental team under the responsibility of Thierry Jouault (Inserm Unit U995-2, Lille) and a bio-clinic aspect under the supervision of Boualem Sendid (parasitology-Mycology -University Hospital, Lille).



Master 2 Recherche (Msc)

• basic et medical Parasitology/Mycology  : Immunology of anti-parasitic defences

University Paris VI, Paris.

• Biology and Health,

Genetic and Microbiology

University Lille 1/Lille 2, Lille.

Master 1

• Biology and Health,

pathophysiology of infectious diseases (UE9)

University Lille 1/Lille 2, Lille.

• Sciences, Technologies et Ingénierie de la Santé

pathophysiology of infectious diseases (UE46)

University of Angers.



• 3rd year of medical course, DCEM1, Parasitology Mycology

• Med2, Parasitology Mycology

• Specific study diploma in Medical biology, Parasitology Mycology

• ILIS, CM parasitology

• University diploma of Medical Mycology, University of Paris Descartes

• University diploma of “Hygiène hospitalière et prévention des infections associées aux soins”, University Lille 2



Research conducted by the Team 2 concerns the role of glycans in modulation of the inflammatory response and the regulation of adaptive response in the context of two related diseases to the yeast Candida albicans : invasive candidiasis and Crohn’s disease.

These research focuses on the relationship between glycans and lectin receptors present in the host. They are divided according to three complementary aims i) experimental pathophysiology, ii) clinical pathophysiology, and iii) development of diagnostic tools.

The constitution of the team allows the analysis from the biology of yeast to the pathology combining expertise in microbiology, immunology and infectious diseases.

Experimental pathophysiology axis: It is based on studies of cellular and molecular biology of yeast with the analysis of glycosylation and its regulation and its impact on the host response.


Cell wall of Candida albicans with the various glycan components
and their distribution (after C. Fradin)


A number of  mannosyltransferases presented by the yeast Candida have been identified by the team. The beta-mannosylation based on these enzymes, involves different acceptors at the origin of the variability of the yeast surface expression of beta-mannosides that influences the host response during infection, among which is phosphopeptidomannan (PPM), a glycolipid, the phospholipomann (PLM), and various major mannoproteins present in the wall of C. albicans.
Transcriptional regulation of beta-1, 2 mannosylation of cell wall glycoconjugates of C. albicans : expression data during infection of the genes coding for 9 beta-1 ,2-mannosyl transferases, each specific to a substrate and / or the stage of beta-1, 2 mannosylation – will allow us to highlight the process of regulating the expression of beta-1, 2 mannosides on different glycoconjugates at different stages of infection.
The structure-activity relationships of beta-1, 2 mannosides are studied within the framework of a national ANR project using the PLM and mannoprotein containing chains of truncated oligomannosides.
Initial results show that depending on their glycosylation, fungal compounds present or not, a pro-inflammatory activity (TNFalpha and IL1beta).
Analysis of structure / activity relationships for fungal glucans: The fungal glucans are considered to be potent stimulators of pro-inflammatory function of host cells. An analysis was conducted regarding the effects of different structures of glucans (beta-1, 3 and beta-1, 6) on the recognition by the macrophage cells and their stimulation.
As part of the European FP7 “AllFun” for the analysis of the impact of different oligomannosides on the process of yeast infection and host response, multiple mutants for each family of mannosyl-transferases , including that of beta-1 ,2-mannosyl transferases, are generated and tested in different models of infection. On simple mutants with various defects in mannosylation, the importance of N-glycosylation in yeast interaction with epithelial cells was established. The same defects in mannosylation presented by certain mutants (bmt6Δ) lead to altered responses of macrophages.


Phagocytosis of Candida albicans
by macrophages (after T. Jouault)

PRRs involved in recognition and sensing of Candida albicans (after T. Jouault)


French Projet ANR: Infectious disease, immunity and environment (MIE)

caBMT: Structure and functions of Beta-1,2 mannosyl transferases of Candida albicans

European Project FP7 – HEALTH.2010.2.4.5-2 : Infection and dysbiosis as the triggers of the development of inflammatory processes in allergies and autoimmune diseases

AllFun : Fungi in the setting of inflammation, allergy and autoimmune diseases:Translating basic science into clinical practices



Publications (see french version)